The last of my summer reading from the International Academy of Education “Education Practices Series”.
This paper is divided into 12 sections:
- Active involvement
- Social particpiation
- Meaningful activities
- Relating new information to prior knowledge
- Being strategic
- Engaging ins self regulation and being reflective
- Restructuring prior knowledge
- Aiming towards understanding rather than memorization
- Helping students learn to transfer
- Taking time to practice
- Development and individual differences
- Creating motivated learners
- Active involvement means, first and foremost “Avoid situations where the students are passive listeners for long periods of time”.
- Social participation, according to Vygotsky: “the way children learn is by internalizing the activities, habits, vocabulary and ideas of the members of the community in which they grow up”.
- “Many school activities are not meaningful since students understand neither why they are doing them nor what their purpose and usefulness is”
- “...more recent research findings have shown that the ability to relate new information to prior knowledge is critical to learning“. This rings a bell for me as I read the first article (Towards a modeling theory of science, cognition and instruction), and I am struggling to make sense of the vocabulary, and meaning of the article. Even though I’ve read it multiple times, I am struggling to connect it to past experiences.
- Learning strategies.
- Being reflective.
- “Sometimes prior knowledge can stand in the way of learning something new … for example in the area of mathematics, many children make mistakes when they use fractions because they use rules that apply to natural numbers only.“
- “Learning is better when material is organized around general principles and explanations, rather than when it is based on the memorization of isolated facts and procedures.” This can be achieved by “1. Ask students to explain a phenomenon or a concept in their own words. 2. Show students how to provide examples that illustrate how a principle applies or how a law works. 3. Students must be able to solve characteristic problems in the subject-matter area. Problems can increase in difficulty as students acquire greater expertise.“
- “Students often cannot apply what they have learned at school to solve real-world problems.”
- “Research shows that people must carry out a great deal of practice to acquire expertise in an area… Increase the amount of time students spend on learning in the classroom. Do not try to cover too many topics at once. Give students time to understand new information.”